Several plant pathological technologies could not be properly transferred to the farmers due to lack of infrastructure and meager financial resources. There have always been felt a missing linkage between the academia, research and the industry, especially for the agri. stake holders that resulted into poor interaction & technology transfer activities. There are several ways for the management of plant diseases. The use of chemicals is very expensive and also causes health problems and environmental pollution. Keeping in view the safe use and antagonistic ability of different bio-control agents against various fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode diseases of plants their use is highly recommended for the management of plant diseases. The bio-control agentsand bio-products of plant and microbial origin can be utilized on commercial basis.
The objectives of this project for demonstration of plant pathological technologies were to:-
- acquaint the end users about the effectiveness of the technologies related to biological management of the diseases and seed health activities
- develop confidence of the stakeholders in the utilization of these technologies
- Train the stakeholders and issue advisory services to solve their plant pathological problems.
Evaluation of Bio-products against Root Knot Nematode of Vegetables:
1- SOIL STERLIZATION
The sterilization of the soil was accomplished by formaline. Diluted formaline (1:320) was poured in the small heap of soil and covered with polythene sheet, in such a way that fumes completely confined within the sheet. Soil was covered for seven days. After sterilization, the soil was left as such for 8-10 days before using this soil. This soil was used for mass culturing of plant parasitic nematodes.
2- RAISING OF NURSERY
Nursery of tomato susceptible cultivar e.g, Money Maker was raised in pot.
3- MULTIPLICATION OF NEMATODE CULTURE
In pots brinjal seedlings were raised and were inoculated with second stage juveniles of root knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp., then these plants were maintained for 3-4 months in a green house.
4- DEMONSTRATION OF EFFICACY OF BIOPESTICIDES AGAINST ROOT KNOT NEMATODES
Various available bioproduts i.e, Abamectin, Emamectin and Biosal were used to demonstrate integrated management strategy.
Most effective bio-pesticides e.g; Abamectin, Emamectin and Biosal were applied in form of drenching at the rate of 1% v/v as pre and post planting and seedling dip treatment: plants with and without nematodes were served as check. Plants were properly irrigated throughout the period of studies. Growth of plants was observed time-to-time and symptoms produced were recorded. Data was recorded on following parameters: Shoot height, root length, galling index, fresh weight of shoots, dry weight of shoots, number of galls, egg mass index, number of eggs per egg mass, number of females per root system and soil population.
Result and Discussion;
The results of bio-products trial against root knot nematode varied significantly among four demonstration blocks. The damage of root knot nematode was evaluated in terms of disease incidence, nematode reproduction, plant height and yield per plant.
The results revealed that Abamectin has strong potential in reducing nematode population. About 10% disease incidence was recorded in the plot treated with Abamectin, while 30% and 40% diseae incidencer was recorded in the plots treated with Emamectin and Biosal respectively. Maximum yield was obtained in block treated with Abamectin (13kg/plant) followed by 11kg and 10.5kg per plant in blocks treated with Amamectin and Biosal respectively. The yield of inoculated block demonstrated lowest yield of 7 kg per plant which showed that the bio-products could be effective to reduce nematode problem in field as sustainable plant protection.