Practical demonstration about milking
Pre- Project survey findings indicated that almost all the farmers were following the traditional practices for raising/managing their dairy animals. Majority of the farmers were depending on livestock for their livelihood. Colostrum feeding in time and naval cord care in practice were lacking. The adoption trend for deworming and dipping of calves was only 33.33 and 30.83 %, respectively. Due to raising calves on traditional lines, up to 50% calf mortality was found up to three months age. The adoption of recommended feeding management techniques (high yielding fodder varieties, silage making, balanced ration, urea treated wheat straw, urea molasses blocks) were lacking. All the farmers were using cotton seed cake as a concentrate, and only 46.66 and 39.16 % farmers were adopting the practice of vaccination (Hemorrhagic Septicemia & Foot and Mouth) and parasite control. The practice of mastitis detection and teat dipping did not exist. Milk let down was done through calf (70 %), oxytocin injection (25 %) and concentrate feeding (5%). Majority of the animals were milked by females (75 %) through folded thumb. Only 45 % respondents were washing the teat /udder of cow /buffalo before milking and 65 % were using the milk foam on teats. In brief, farmers were totally ignorant about recommended techniques that lead to high calf mortality, delayed age of maturity, low milk production, high cost of feeding and low profitability.
When recommended techniques were disseminated through training, literature and trials farmers respond very well and showed deep interest towards the adoption of recommended techniques. Technology transfer program was found very beneficial for the farming community. Awareness about timely colostrum feeding was 91.66% but this was nil prior to technology transfer program. About 81.66% farmers were well aware and doing the naval cord care of the calves. Adoption trend of deworming and dipping was 95.83%. Majority of the farmers had know how about the importance of calf feeding by artificial method and demerits of direct sucking but adoption trend was lacking. Due to calf raising on scientific lines, a significant reduction in calf mortality (10%) was found. Similarly, farmer’s awareness/ adoption trend about feeding management practices increased to a large extent. In brief, majority of the farmer’s had the view point that by adopting the recommended practices, economic losses decreased and profitability increased.
In Pakistan, animal production is increasing at slower rate compared to human population resulting in deficiency of animal protein in the diet of our people. The annual milk is over 35 million tons because of which Pakistan is rated the forth largest milk producer in the world but still country has to import milk and milk products to fulfill the domestic demand. This import costs a huge amount of foreign exchange. Therefore low dairy sector productivity requires to be enhanced to meet not only the dietary needs of local human population but also to produce surplus to earn foreign exchange through exports. It is necessary because due to ever increasing human population and their living standards the demand for animal protein particularly that of milk is increasing day by day. There are many factors responsible for low productivity but unawareness / non adoption of recommended techniques is the leading one. It is need of hour to take step without further delay with an aim to disseminate the technologies, imperative for profitable dairying at farmer level because white revolution is only possible if farming community start to adopt the recommended techniques and reject the traditional practices.
- To introduce the technologies in field with farmer’s participation to reduce calf mortality and age of maturity in heifers.
- To train the farmers about technologies related to feeding management of dairy animals.
- To introduce the dairy herd health management packages at farmer’s level.
The present study is ongoing at farmer level in rural areas of T. T. Singh. The mode of technology transfer is training (lectures, practical demonstration and group discussion), trials (to compare traditional practices with the recommended one) and literature (brusher related to each recommended technique is distributed). Various meetings, days and women training events were conducted at farmer’s level with an aim to educate/ train them in a farmer friendly environment.
Pre- project findings
Survey findings indicated that almost all the farmers were following the traditional practices for raising/managing their dairy animals.
Dissemination of calf related management practices
Trials were conducted at farmer’s levels with the aim of technology transfer. For this purpose, five trials were conducted and in each trial recommended technique was compared with the traditional practice (in practice at farmer’s level). Up to 90% calves remained healthy due to timely colostrum feeding but 50% calves in second group showed the symptoms of white scour and bloat frequently up to two months age and 30% calves died. Time of placenta expulsion decreased to a large extent due to in time colostrum feeding as 90 % dams expel placenta with in 2 hour post calving. Direct suckling was found injurious both for calf and dam. About 70% calves remained underfed and others overfed. Fifty % calves damaged the teats of dams by teeth and 30 % dams showed the symptoms of mastitis. However, feeding the calves through artificial means get the exact quantity of milk (10% of body weight) and remained healthy (87.5 %) and in good condition. Naval cord care kept all the calves safe from omphalitis. However, in untreated group 50% calves showed the symptoms of omphalitis and 25 % died due to septicemia. Deworming improved the body condition and health status of calves. However, the calves of control group go towards weakness day by day, showed the symptoms of loose diarrhea frequently, resulting the death of 3 calves. Ivomec injection respond well followed by nawagon as the problem of mange recovered with in 7-10 days. In control calves the severity of mange increased resulting weakness, unrestlessness and skin wounds along with mortality of 2 calves.
Technology transfer program was found very beneficial for the farming community. Awareness about timely colostrum feeding was 91.66% but this was nil prior to technology transfer program. About 81.66% farmers were well aware and doing the naval cord care of the calves. Adoption trend of deworming and dipping was 95.83%. Majority of the farmers had know how about the importance of calf feeding by artificial method and demerits of direct sucking but adoption trend was lacking. Due to calf raising on scientific lines, a significant reduction in calf mortality (10%) was found.
Dissemination of feeding management practices
Five trials were conducted and in each trial recommended technique was compared with the traditional practice (in practice at farmer’s level). A Very positive impact of UMB was noted on intake, body conditions and milk yield. On an average two liter per animal per day increase in milk was recorded. There was a general response from the farmers that UMB is the best option to keep the animals healthy and get more milk. Milk yield of buffaloes increased 20% due to feeding balance ration along with a reduction in cost of feeding as the rate of cottonseed cake was Rs 30/ Kg and that of balance ration Rs 20/Kg. It was also observed that body condition of the buffaloes improved due to feeding balance ration. It was observed that buffaloes fed urea treated wheat straw performed better in terms of body condition and milk yield. Almost 2-3lt increase in milk yield of each buffalo fed UTWS was found. No negative impact of silage feeding was found on feed intake and milk yield in lactating buffaloes. Due to supplementing P, 80% heifers having the problem of pica recovered and in remaining severity of pica decreased to a large extent. However, in lactating buffaloes, none was suffered with post parturient hemoglobin urea but in control animals, 2 buffaloes (20%) suffered with post parturient hemoglobin urea It was also observed that body condition of the animals that get single super juice as Phosphorous supplement improved too.
Farmers were totally ignorant about the recommended calf related management techniques (colostrum feeding, naval cord care, deworming, dipping), feeding management of dairy animals (silage making, urea treatment of wheat straw, urea molasses blocks, ration formulation and use of super juice as phosphorous supplement) and health management (vaccination, control of parasites, milking management and mastitis control program). Technology transfer was found very effective to change the farmer mind from traditional to recommended practices.
Efficient technology transfer program is the key for white revolution and such programs must be stared at national level, covering each area.